Reptiles are vertebrate animals with slow metabolisms, short digestive tracts, and rough horny scales. They are categorized into four orders. Some have sex-based reproduction, while others reproduce through asexual means. These animals are isolated from their relatives by their sexual characteristics. In addition, they are able to maintain genetic variation by beginning the reproductive process with double the normal number of chromosomes.
Reptiles are vertebrate animals
Reptiles are a group of vertebrate animals with four limbs. They evolved from a group of four-limbed extinct animals. Reptiles are oviparous, and their eggs are composed of a yolk containing high levels of energy. The size of their eggs varies, but most of them have about six calories per milligram of dry egg mass.
Reptiles are classified into six major groups. These groups include worm-lizards, lizards, snakes, turtles, tortoises, and tuataras. Most reptiles are diurnal, and their vision is adapted to daylight conditions.
They have slow metabolisms
Reptiles are known for their slow metabolisms, which means that they need very little food. Even pet snakes and tortoises do not require daily, weekly, or monthly feedings. This is also true for big reptiles. For example, sailors used to collect hundreds of tortoises off of islands and leave them in the hold for months.
Reptiles use a low metabolic rate to conserve energy. They also store excess energy as lipids, which they mobilise when needed. Moreover, reptiles invest lipids in their eggs, which serve as the primary energy source for developing embryos. Reptiles share this lipid metabolism with birds. However, non-avian reptiles store their adipose tissue mostly in their abdominal fat bodies and tails.
They have short digestive tracts
Intestinal lengths of reptiles are generally shorter than those of mammals. However, reptiles differ from mammals in that the lengths are not proportional to body mass or trophic niche. 파충류샵 Instead, the intestine length is proportional to the length of the snout-vent.
The length of the gastrointestinal tracts of reptiles is shorter than those of mammals, which is consistent with their smaller food intake. Reptiles also have different movement patterns, so the trophic level may not have a great influence on their intestine lengths.
They have rough horny scales
The skin of a reptile is covered with a tough layer of keratin, which is similar to the skin of mammals. However, reptiles do not have the same dermal layer that mammals have. This water-tight exterior helps reptiles thrive in dry environments. Reptiles shed their skin regularly throughout their lives. However, shedding tends to occur most frequently during their adolescent phase and decreases as they mature. This shedding process is mainly for health reasons.
Snakes and turtles are examples of reptiles. Snakes, lizards, and various types of crocodiles are also members of this group. Turtles have a shell-like appearance that is made of numerous overlapping scales, which are composed of horny epidermis. In addition, some species of reptiles have bony plates beneath their scales, called osteoderms. Moreover, reptiles use their scales to distinguish different species. For instance, members of the family Lacertidae have large head plates, while geckos have comparatively small plates on their head. There are several terms used for lizard scales; the scales between the nostrils are sometimes referred to as supranasals, while those between the nostrils are called internas
They have watertight skin
Reptiles have water-tight skin that is covered with scales or bony plates. These skins are made of keratin, a waterproofing protein. Reptiles’ lungs are more efficient than those of amphibians, thanks to a larger surface area for gas exchange. This water-tight skin also helps them live in drier ecosystems, which makes them ideal candidates for life on land. Reptiles shed skin continuously throughout their lives, but shedding tends to be greater in their adolescent phase and less frequent during the adult stage. This is a necessary process to maintain good health.
Reptiles’ skin is similar to that of amphibians, but is more resistant to water. Reptiles’ skin is made of keratin, the same substance found in human hair. This prevents internal fluids from evaporating, which allows reptiles to survive in a variety of dry environments.
They have short kidneys
Reptiles, like humans, have three types of kidneys. Typically, each type develops in succession during embryonic development. The mesonephros are located in the posterior part of the kidney, while the pronephros are located anteriorly. A duct from the pronephros remains to become the duct of the mesonephros, also known as the Wolffian duct.
The kidneys of reptiles have small size, as they do not contain the Loop of Henle, which is found in the nephrons of birds and mammals. As a result, the kidneys in reptiles excrete uric acid. They also excrete urea, which is the chief nitrogenous waste product. Most reptiles use the colon to reabsorb water, while some can also take up water from the bladder.